Pyramid Giza Egypt Construction Theory Ramp Carlos E. Rodríguez Varona -consists of ramp and external workings architectural renderings, graphics, power point.

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HYPOTHESIS OF CONSTRUCTION OF *

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THE PYRAMIDS OF THE
VALLEY OF GIZE
/GIZA*

*Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez Varona*

BACKGROUND:

My name is Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez V. I live in Camagüey city, Camagüey
province, Cuba. I am graduated of Education, in Physics and Electronic
specialty. I work as Computer systems analyzer in a Television broadcasting of
my natal city, Camagüey.

I belong to the Group for study and diffusion of the Egyptology “PA-JU-WER”,
resident in Havana city, Cuba.

I possess a New Construction Hypothesis of the Pyramids of the Valley of Gizeh,
registered under License No. 90-2003 of CENDA (Centro Nacional de Derecho de
Autor - National Centre of Copyright) in Havana, Cuba. The same one is hosted at
this moment in the following places:

http://noticias.arq.com.mx/Detalles/9547.html (main portal of the architecture
and architects in Mexico)

It is in my webpage: http://crvcrv21-newhypothesisofgizeh.blogspot.com/, and I
possess a forum of discussion for this purpose also: http://newhypothesis.mi-web.es/

My work consists of the proposition of a new technique -or technology- to use
the ramps in a completely efficient and reasonable way, accord with the time
they were built.

This hypothesis presents 4 features that constitute completely new concepts
regarding the previous hypotheses:

√ The small dimensions that they possess regarding the pyramids and the almost
null angle of slope them possess regarding the horizontal plane, of 3.9 degrees.

√ The space where this hypothesis is developed constituted by the steps and
borders that possess the levels of the pyramid.

√ The first type uses ramps, platforms and supports for both of them, placed
over the steps that conform the levels. And their quantity may vary according to
the height and the type of element to elevate.

√ The second type uses small sections taken from the borders of the levels. It
increases in longitude and depth inside the level as the construction of the
ramps advances, according with the dimensions that require the same one.

Following the English translation of my work:

HYPOTHESIS OF CONSTRUCTION OF THE PYRAMIDS OF THE VALLEY OF GIZE

(English translation from María Jesús Postigo Ordóñez)

Author: Carlos E. Rodríguez Varona

Co-author: Dámaso René Rodríguez Vives

All rights reserved under license No. 90-2003 of CENDA, Havana, Cuba. January 9
of 2003

**NOTE:
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to their security settings - Active X control content.**

**
POWER POINT PRESENTATION OF IMAGES OF RAMP
CONSTRUCTION & GREAT PYRAMID**

Credit to
my helper designer, the Ing. Fernando Bermejo, the 3D image creator.*(Spanish
Text) [great images and layout-CMD]- please open link and wait for it to load,
controls will open on lower left corner of window. Thank you, CMD*

INTRODUCTION

The following hypothesis tries to demonstrate the probable technology (skill)
used for the construction, specifically the elevation (increase) and location to
certain height, of the constructive elements that compose the Egyptian pyramids
of Gizeh's valley, in specific Keops's pyramid. There is exposed a theory that
uses two types of ramps: those of static character, placed inside the body of
the pyramid, constructed with the body of this one; and smaller others of
dynamic character, located on the steps of the levels, of structure flexible and
changeable, easy to move and maneuver with regard to the previous ones.
Presenting both an angle of inclination almost void in the slope.

The pieces are placed in the shape of apparel to the style rope of chairs (ashlar
masonry), for what they are fastened - or grafts - for the mass that is
distributed above road surface and uniformly of permanent form. In the
bibliographical references there appear the general foundations of the previous
theories.

This hypothesis presents 4 features that constitute totally new concepts with
regard to the previous hypotheses:

· The small dimensions that they possess with regard to the pyramids and the
almost void angle of inclination that they possess with regard to the horizontal
plane, of 3.9 degrees.

· The space where this hypothesis develops it is constituted by the steps and
edges that possess the levels of the pyramid.

· The first type of ramps uses ramps, platforms and supports, which are placed
on the steps that shape the levels; quantity that different according to the
height and the type of element to rising.

· The second type uses small sections of the edges of the levels that they
increase in length and depth inside the level as there advances the construction
of the ramp, according to the dimensions that is needed have the same one.

The aim (lens) of this work consists of enunciating the probable technology used
to construct the pyramid by means of the use of ramps to raise the pieces,
without including the totality of the constructive process of the same one;
having present that this one constitutes the fundamental aspect to carry out the
construction: without a technology to transport the pieces is not possible to do
anything.

THE FIRST TYPE OF RAMP

The construction of the model is realized by means of the following procedure:
taking dimensions come closer those of the blocks that compose the pyramid,
using geometric basic forms, a brief physical reasoning - mathematically and
common measures of length in that epoch; there is chosen an angle adapted for
the slope that it makes possible to annul almost completely the action of the
gravity force; there being made a ramp that satisfies both fundamental
conditions:

· To transform the work to elevate the blocks in overcoming the force of
friction when dragging them and not in overcoming the action of the gravity
force on them.

· Possibility of transferring the blocks of comfortable, safe and fast way,
doing possible to make complex maneuvers with a minimum of risk; even though
this implies to cross greater distances and to transfer a greater number of
pieces than they compose the inclines due to the necessity to increase to the
volume and the dimensions of the same one.

These two conditions, of obligatory fulfillment for both types of inclines,
constitute the theoretical premise that sustains this hypothesis. For the
specific case of the incline model made pattern to determine the angle of the
slope, the used measures were - using the Biblical elbow like length:

• Present altitude: 0,45 meters (1 elbow),

• Final Height: 2,70 meters (6 elbows, including the present altitude),

• Length of the incline: 33,75 meters (75 elbows),

• Wide (optional): 1,8 meters (4 elbows) - (the wide one varies according to the
height in him case of the second type of inclines)

**(Diapositiva11.JPG)***

By means of the Theorem of the Triangle rectangle of Pythagoras, the rake is
determined that will have the slope, being obtained the looked for result. Of
random form: some specific procedure is not used to calculate it. This procedure
is reflected in the annexes. The measures are chosen according to the necessity
to elevate the objects until certain height and position. It can be observed how
to design inclines of different lengths according to the previous thing in the
annexes. The dimensions and the rake that have the inclines are greater of which
really they could have been. This is valid also for the second type of incline.
This avoids discussing the questions related to the real measures.

The first type presents/displays a complementary structural set conformed by two
horizontal platforms: first destined to locate the blocks, like an intermediate
place between the incline and the level next to the same one to place them later
on this level or to elevate them by another incline parallelly located; and
second like support to maintain to the inclines and platforms that excel of the
steps. The almost null rake is characteristic fundamental: 3.9 slope degrees
with respect to the horizontal plane. This is equivalent to work on surfaces
almost totally horizontal. He himself obtains itself randomly from selected
dimensions.

**(Diapositiva10.JPG)***

An effective method is obtained to elevate objects of any dimensions from a
level to another one, using a system of inclines able to vary its dimensions
using more of a level like support quickly to adjust to the existing
necessities. This allows combining several sets with the objective to use them
of alternating form to elevate the elements in complicated sections. This
appears exemplified in the figures.

This quality receives great validity in the
case of the construction of the cameras and inner rooms and the highest levels
of the pyramid. This first type would be fundamental in the construction of the
highest part - call PIRAMIDON - being used for this several faces, to make the
final finished one of the faces, and to correct flaws or to finish off details
during the constructive process; in the transportation of jewels, symbols and
other funeral pieces; and in the sealing of the cameras and filled up of the
way. The filled up process of the steps in the highest part, where supposedly
they do not fit by the length so reduced that they have the edges of the levels
with respect to the length that have the inclines, would be made of vertical
form. That is: the spaces of the subordinate echelons of command will fill up
where is the incline, so that the filled up sections correspond with the
vertical plane of the same one.

The use of this first type is essential at the time of conceiving the pyramid
due to the quality that characterizes it: it is a structure easy to move,
although it is considerable the number of pieces that compose it. This makes
possible to completely disassemble it at any time of the construction to place
it in another place. It stops being a static object, making possible designs of
great complexity and given his ample possibilities to vary his dimensions,
adapts easily to the place, position and maneuver that is required during the
constructive process.

SECOND TYPE OF INCLINE

Consists of applying the previous type using a new variant: using equal inclines
but of greater dimensions, combined with the body of the pyramid. These inclines
would be the used ones on great scale to make the work most of, employee to
transport the greater amount of blocks and constructive elements. The height is
expressed by the amount of levels that occupy, which will obey to the exigency
to advance more quickly in the work.

The length must adjust to conserve the angle of the slope of 3.9 degrees. The
objective consists of overcoming the friction force and not the gravity force.
They constitute great and long constructed inclines using sections taken from
the edges of the levels, near the steps of the pyramid, but located on the
levels. They present/display great lengths, near the 80 meters as one is in the
table of measures. And the present altitude is analogous to those of the first
type: an elbow of height and a superior surface conformed by almost cubical
blocks to a slope of inclination of 3,9 degrees.

***(Diapositiva7.JPG)***

The sections of the edges of the levels - or the corners, according to the case
literally are absorbed by the inclines as these last ones are constructed, using
like platform to support to the incline the inferior levels. Reason why the
pyramid becomes the route to raise the pieces, with no need of steps nor
platforms.

The blocks from certain sections of the edges of the levels are taken to
construct the base on which the incline will be constructed. The taken amount
diminishes horizontally in each level as it is constructed, because the length
of the incline diminishes as it increases the height: The direction of the
inclines will depend on the taken initial trajectory.

The volume that occupies the inclines properly is the conformed one by the part
of the slope solely, that is, the volume corresponding to the section limited
between the slope and the horizontal plane corresponds properly to the incline
this. The rest is the blocks of the levels. The wide one of the incline is
equivalent to the one of several blocks or steps, to allow simultaneously
transporting several elements or others of greater proportions. The incline is
constructed entering itself towards the interior of the same one as it advances
in the construction, by means of a passage that interconnects them, maintaining
the slope of 3.9 degrees. Resembling enormous lateral stairs with form of zigzag
within the pyramid. This allows to transfer anyone of the pieces that compose
the pyramid, without concerning the dimensions and/or the mass that they have,
until certain height.

***(Diapositiva3.JPG)***

If necessity exists to vary the direction sense because some obstacle
interposes: a passage, a camera, a failure or accident, a corner, or another
detail; it is determined if it is necessary to change the sense, the dimensions,
to continue on a face or others, to replace them by those of the first type,
etc., being offered a quite dynamic process. But considering that once
constructed is not possible to return backwards because the blocks that compose
the body of the inclines cannot be cleared since it comprises of which it has
been constructed.

The second type of incline turns out to fuse those of the first type repeated
several times one next to the other in several levels; taking advantage of like
platforms of support for the constructive elements and the previous inclines,
the blocks that are successively at the end of the mounted inclines and those
that are below the sections taken in the edges of the levels, respectively. It
will be used to construct the pyramid most of. When it is arrived at a height
where space does not exist to install them diminish its dimensions. And when it
is not possible to be continued reducing the dimensions, they are replaced by
those of the first type. This includes in addition the possibility of combining,
temporarily or no, both types of inclines to surpass obstacles or to apply
certain constructive techniques.

It turns out advantageous to destine a section or fixed area of the face to work
with the inclines. This facilitates the design and the planning of the work,
because the used sections are easier to control, reserving to the use of the
remaining sections for possible problems or variations of the design.

All this makes possible to make a scale model of the pyramid to determine how it
is going to be constructed, where they go placed the inclines and how they will
be used.

Planning wisely, a margin of errors is controlled that it facilitates to surpass
failures or necessary modifications, allowing to execute agreed actions with the
existing necessities and possibilities.

And when arriving at the highest part of the pyramid - that includes the
PIRAMIDON - the first type of inclines is used and finally the spaces used by
the inclines of the second type fill up. This last operation is carried out of
descendent form use do the first type of inclines is used of permanent form in
the final stage.

This work does not try to expose a concrete example that shows the exact
procedure to construct the pyramid, where both specifies the use of types of
inclines, because both models of inclines exposed here can be used using
dissimilar technical variants in any construction where inclines are used. The
annexes are included in the end related to this aim: to use them as guide to
elaborate certain and exact constructive procedure. The objective of this
hypothesis only consists of transmitting the technique; not the procedure.

CONCLUSIONS

This technique previously presents/displays several advantages and contributions
with respect to the existing ones:

It has a precise and reasonable foundation with respect to the previous existing
hypotheses. It uses the inclines of efficient way, using measured known and a
technique concrete, without presenting/displaying serious disadvantages as they
are: to constitute a risk for the personal security of the constructors, too
expensive being; not to establish of clear, simple and suitable form to the
conditions of those times, a trustworthy technical procedure that guarantees the
constructive process. As well, it allows to dissuade to think about resorting to
methods or procedures such as those of supernatural or extraterrestrial
character.

It conforms a safe and trustworthy model that it serves as to tool fundamental
in the design and construction of the pyramid, making possible to plan of exact
form the same one, to calculate the time of construction, the technical amount
of resources, personnel and necessary elements.

This hypothesis implicitly carries the possibility that the Pharaoh told on a
safe technique that he allowed him to make the decision to construct the
pyramid.

This hypothesis, to validate itself from the historical point of view, reframes
the enigma of the construction of the pyramid orienting the incognito of the
investigative approach directed to discover how it was calculated and designed
the pyramid and how they were elaborated, placed and constructed all to his
pieces and sections.

This work previously does not discard the possibility of the use of other
expressed techniques that could serve like complementary, because singular
maneuvers could be applied when making or to transport specific elements as they
could be enormous pieces. In addition, it is directed to facilitate a study and
understanding of the architecture of old Egypt. It is, partly, a recognition to
the technical and cultural development reached about old Egyptians. It is the
impelling motor of this work to base to where it is possible, a hypothesis of
the character most reasonable and near possible the specifications and
technological and cultural that existed at that time.

Of this form they are raised the inclines of this hypothesis; which at first
sight can be ineffective due to the small thing which they seem with respect to
the dimensions of the pyramid; but that little by little, using them of
systematic form, provides a quite consistent and satisfactory solution with
respect to the dilemma of the used technique to elevate the pieces, being made
possible to use these inclines in the construction of a pyramid with the
complexity and the size that is desired, as it will be seen more ahead. With a
suitable planning and design, they are possible to be used systematically of
effective form placing them parallel to and on the steps, of continuous form to
conform a trajectory through one or several of the faces - according to the
design of the architect - by where is possible to be transported the elements.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

I. Aldred, Cyril, Aparición de los reyes - dioses. Primer florecimiento del
antiguo Egipto. / Piggott, Stuart, El despertar de la civilización. Los enigmas
de las antiguas culturas revelados, Ed. Labour, S.A. Barcelona, España, 1963.

II. ENCARTA digital Encyclopaedia, 2000 year edition. Microsoft Corporation.

III. Moreux, T. (Abate), La ciencia misteriosa de los faraones, Ed. Sabian,
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1956.

IV. Pijoán, José, El arte egipcio hasta la conquista romana / Summa Artis:
Historia general del arte, Ed. Espasa - Calpe, S.A. Vol. III. Segunda edición,
Madrid, Epaña, 1945.

V. Website: Touregypt:
http://www.touregypt.net/antiq.

VI. Website: United Sate Congress Library: mailto: lcweb.loc.gov.

VII. Website: Biblioteca Universidad Zaragoza:
http://wzar.unizar.es

VIII. Stadelmann, Rainer, Las pirámides, colosales obras de ingeniería, Rev. "El
correo de la UNESCO", número El Egipto de los faraones, Ed. Maury - Imprimeur
S.A., año XLI, Septiembre de 1988.

ANEXX:

TABLE OF DATA FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE USE OF
THE INCLINES (WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE TYPE)

Calculation for height N-elbows, of the length of the incline, with respect to
the angle of the slope (3.9 degrees), considering that the overall height does
not contain to A1 (0.45 meters):

Formula:

Length (d) = (Height)/(cot (angle))

Calculation to determine the height until which the incline can be used:

Formula:

Height (a) = ((230.4/2) - (length of rampa/2))/(146.6/(230.4/2))

Table of results:

Measures:

Height (H): Length (D): Height (A):

1 elbow 0.45 meters 6.6008 meters 82.6697 meters

2 elbows 0.90 meters 13.2017 meters 80.2314 meters

3 elbows 1.35 meters 19.8025 meters 77.7931 meters

4 elbows 1.80 meters 26.4034 meters 75.3548 meters

5 elbows 2.25 meters 33.0042 meters 72.9165 meters

6 elbows 2.70 meters 39.6050 meters 70.4782 meters

7 elbows 3.15 meters 46.2059 meters 68.0399 meters

8 elbows 3.60 meters 52.8067 meters 65.6016 meters

9 elbows 4.05 meters 59.4075 meters 63.1633 meters

10 elbows 4.50 meters 66.0084 meters 60.7250 meters

11 elbows 4.95 meters 72.6092 meters 58.2867 meters

12 elbows 5.40 meters 79.2101 meters 55.8484 meters

Note: The wide one of the incline will depend on the necessities to transport
the objects, starting off of a wide minimum equivalent to the double of which it
has the object to transport.

**CALCULATIONS OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE INCLINE PATTERN
**

Calculations of the incline

Parameters:

Present altitude of the incline: A1: 0.4500 meters

Final height of the incline: A2: 2.7000 meters

Length of the incline: B: 33.7500 meters

Wide of the incline: L: 1.8000 meters

Formula for the volume of the incline:

Vr= ((((A2-A1) *B) /2) + (A1*B))*L

Vr= 95.6813 cubic meters

Formula to find the rake:

Angle (ƒ): (ƒ) = Arcot (B/(A2-A1)) = 1/Arctan (B/(A2-A1)); being: cot (ƒ) =
(B/(A2-A1))

cot (ƒ) =1/tan (ƒ) = 15,0000

(ƒ) = 3,9054

http://www.cenit.cult.cu/sites/uneac/boletin/0005/index.htm#art-04
_________________ CRVCRV21 - Rv:200110

Carlos Eduardo Rodriguez V 2008 Circular Times - Great Pyramid Construction Theory Ramp div. 2008

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