by Edward J. Kunkel

Review by Dr. Colette M. Dowell © 1999


Sometimes people have some really far out stuff that

they believe in and studiously research and accumulate

data. From this data they arrive at their personal

conclusion creating a hypothesis or theoretical study

that they hope to be recognized for and for that

experimental theory to be reproducible.


        Often there are timely fads and certain cults of studies. People have fashioned extreme ideas beyond the excepted 'norm' of reality of their time. People have worshipped concepts and solutions to puzzles of our ancient ancestors. Revolutionary ideas and thoughts have surfaced arising from curious minds that have stretched the envelope in search of discovering hidden mysteries.


        Madam Blavatsky had her moment, poltergeist activity and tilting tables was acceptable behavior at cocktail galas, ancient folklore and voodoo was about, communicating with souls after they had left their bodies was radical common thought and then there was pyramidology. As travel increased and more people were trotting the globe, more stories of infamous lands and tales of huge pyramids and temples were spread about. The mystery of Egypt and the great Nile flooding the lands of ancient civilized people was indeed provocative to archaeologists and persons of alternative academia. In the 1930s there was great interest in Egyptology, and the origin and practical use of the great pyramids and temples. Among some of the more daring and engaging researchers of pyramidology of the times was Edward J. Kunkel.


        Edward J. Kunkel sat at a Kiwanas Club lecture in the early 1930s and listened as Mr. Owsley, who had just arrived from Egypt, told of his adventures and discoveries. Mr. Owsley described a section of the Karnak Temples as having a huge door weighing 80 tons suspended by two pivots. This fascinated Edward and motivated him to analyze the structures and interiors of the great Karnak Temples. How could it be that these people moved such a monstrous mass as the 80-ton door and hinged it properly inside its enclosure? Edward methodically figured the different mechanical ways, which could move such great mass. Through the process of deduction he came to the conclusion that pumps, hydraulics and waterpower were the key mechanisms used to move such voluminous mass of stone and material.


        Edward's book, The Pharaoh's Pump, is his personal writings of his theoretical notion on the mechanical hydraulic engineering used to create structures to move great masses of stone through water canals and locks. [Please see Pyramid Quest by Dr. Robert M. Schoch] He rallies the idea that the canals and locks were filled with water by human bucket brigades from the Nile. He really goes into some intense engineering feats. Sometimes his working models needed extra 'shafts' or 'drains' that were not yet found to be in the pyramids. At times he excused him-self for the shafts not being there, for they must be there for the working model, but the excavators just haven't found them yet. So in a way he changed the model of the pyramid to fit his theory of hydraulic pumps and canals. It may prove out later however, in the future, that these 'shafts' will be located and the real pyramid model can be tested.


        I feel that Edward showed some great might in presenting his data and engineering feats regarding the movements of water [Please see water erosion and the Redating of the Great Sphinx of Giza] and the mechanical means to do it. He really is inventive yet at the same time keeps to simple physics. He has simplified the overwhelming struggle of thousands of man-hours hauling rock for hundreds of years to build pyramids and temples by use of water powered energy from locks, chambers and valves. He presents archaeological evidence of some holes and niches here and there in certain sites, and when they are compared to his blueprints on his hydraulic engineering work, they identically matched in supporting structure and design. It is interesting to see the similarities.


        He has illustrations of temples and models and explains their particular function. He articulates in casual engineering terms and conveys a form of basic hydraulic physics. He speaks of water canals and how great masses of stone traveled through the deliberate networks. His mechanical drawings are careful, trying to show the reader the actual design of the mechanism at work. Edward proposes the Queen's Chamber actually functioned as a ram compression chamber and the nearby Niche as a safety valve. He also claims that the King's Chamber is a secondary compression chamber. He is very staunch in his beliefs and findings and definitely comes to the conclusion that his theory is correct.


        Edward died in the late 1970s. His book was privately published and had limited distribution. The Pharaoh's Pump is a classic book written in Edward's affected manner of speech. This Mr. Edward J. Kunkel was definitely a pioneer of alternative views in decoding the mysteries of the pyramids. It was exciting times for pyramidology audiences as they read of possible secretive masterful engineering laws of the ancient Egyptians. He experienced the height of Egyptian philosophy and pyramidology when it was fashionable to do so. He made a contribution to the interest of peoples of curious minds. He created his own cult and followers. His work lives on and has been revived through the efforts of Steven Myers and The Pharaoh's Pump Foundation.


        The Pharaoh's Pump Foundation is building a working model of Edward's diagrams. They have an animated file of this pumping device on their Pharaoh's Pump Foundation web-site. The book The Pharaoh's Pump can also be obtained through the Foundation's site. Get the book, read it, it is very interesting.





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